Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac buy mortgages from lenders and keep them in their portfolios or group loans into mortgage-backed securities (. Ginnie Mae, which remained a government organization, guarantees mortgage loans insured by the FHA, as well as mortgages insured by the Veterans Administration (VA) and the Farmers Home Administration (F). As such, Ginnie Mae is the only mortgage lending agency that is explicitly backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government. In 1970, the federal government authorized Fannie Mae to purchase conventional loans, that is,.
Those who weren't insured by the FHA, VA or FMHA created the Federal Mortgage Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), known colloquially as Freddie Mac, to compete with Fannie Mae to facilitate a stronger and more efficient secondary mortgage market. That same year, FNMA went public on the New York and Pacific stock exchanges. In 1981, Fannie Mae issued her first mortgage transfer and called it a mortgage-backed security. Ginnie Mae had secured the first mortgage transfer guarantee from an approved lender in 1968 and, in 1971, Freddie Mac issued his first mortgage transfer, called a participation certificate, comprised primarily of private mortgage loans.
As loan originators increasingly began to distribute their loans through private label PLS, GSEs lost the ability to monitor and control loan originators. Competition between GSEs and private securitizers for loans further undermined the power of GSEs and strengthened mortgage originators. This contributed to the decline in subscription standards and was one of the main causes of the financial crisis. Investment bank securitizers were more willing to securitize venture loans because, in general, they maintained minimal risk.
While GSEs guaranteed the return on their mortgage-backed securities (MBS), private securitizers generally did not, and could only retain, a small portion of the risk. Banks often transferred this risk to insurance companies or other counterparties through credit swaps, allowing investors and creditors to discern their actual exposure to risk. Fannie Mae earns money in part by borrowing at low rates and then reinvesting her loans into full mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities. It borrows in the debt markets by selling bonds and provides liquidity to loan originators by buying comprehensive loans.
It buys comprehensive loans and then securitizes them for the investment market by creating MBSs that are held or sold. Fannie Mae also derives a significant portion of her income from the guarantee fees she receives as compensation for assuming the credit risk of the mortgage loans underlying her Fannie Mae single-family MBS and from single-family mortgage loans held in her retained portfolio. Investors, or the buyers of Fannie Mae's MBS, are willing to let Fannie Mae keep this fee in exchange for taking on credit risk; that is, Fannie Mae's guarantee that the principal and scheduled interest on the underlying loan will be paid even if the borrower defaults. However, the implied warranty, as well as the various special treatments given to Fannie by the government, greatly improved her success.
FNMA is a financial corporation that uses derivatives to cover its cash flow. The derivative products it uses include interest rate swaps and options for performing interest rate swaps (fixed payment swaps, fixed receipt swaps, base swaps, interest rate caps and swaps, initial forward swaps). The duration gap is a financial and accounting term for the difference between the duration of assets and liabilities and is generally used by banks, pension funds, or other financial institutions to measure their risk due to changes in the interest rate. The company said that in April its average duration gap widened to more than 3 months in April, from zero in March.
The Washington-based company aims to maintain its duration gap between minus 6 months and plus 6 months. From September 2003 to March, the difference fluctuated between plus and minus one month. The SEC said that Mudd's misconduct included knowingly giving false testimony before Congress. Mudd said last week that the government approved Fannie Mae's revelations during her term in office.
The value of common and preferred shares for guardianship holders declined significantly due to the suspension of future dividends on previously outstanding shares, in an effort to maintain the value of the company's debt and mortgage-backed securities. Today, it is the largest sponsor of 30-year fixed-rate mortgages and remains a key mechanism for facilitating homeownership. Freddie Mac is a nickname for the Federal Mortgage Loan Corporation (FHLMC), a shareholder owned company that, like Fannie Mae, doesn't lend directly to consumers. .